Semen analysis values as determined by the World Health Organization (WHO):
Ejaculate 1.5 - 5ml
Sperm Concentration >20 mill / cc
Motility >50%
Forward Progression 2 (scale 1-4)
Morphology 30% normal forms

Testicular factors:
Testosterone & Sperm are produced in the testicles, if testicles are small it may cause inadequate testosterone levels or poor quality sperm.

Infection, including sexually transmitted diseases (STD's), mycoplasmia, mumps and glandular infections all cause sperm to be less motile.

Abnormally large, twisted (varicose) vein that drains blood from the testicle. It may prevent normal coolingof the testicle, raising testicular temperature. This may damage sperm.

Blockage to ejaculatory ducts
Some men are born with a blockage to that part of the testicle containing sperm or the ejaculatory ducts which inhibits ejaculation.

Autoimmune Issue
Antibodies target sperm damaging them. Semen analysis will determine which aspect of semen function is impaired.

The sperm's ability to move rapidly toward the egg. If impaired, fertilization may not occur.

A sperm count of less than 20million/millilitre of semen is considered low even though it takes only one sperm to fertilize an egg.
Acupuncture and TCM treatments have been shown to improve these conditions effectively. They relate to specific treatable syndromes in acupuncture and TCM.

DNA Fragmentation
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is where a single sperm is injected into an egg. This proceedure allowed infertile males, if they had any sperm, to have children, irrespective of liquefaction, morphology, motility, sexual or testicular problems.
If the egg is healthy, it is now known that fertilization is not a measure of sperm quality, and the embryo fails to implant, or miscarries in early pregnancy, perhaps the difficulty lies with the sperm.
DNA is a genetic imprint organised on 23 structures called chromosomes. It looks like a spiral staircase. The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) looks at the structure of the staircase to determine if any of the steps are broken - less than 15% is considered normal, up to 30% will cause reduced fertility, and if over 30% the individual will be unlikely to father a child.